‘These Bad Times’: Liberty, Individualism, and Education in Nineteenth-Century England


Conferees explored a series of Victorian thinkers’ skeptical reaction to modernity, assessing their worries about the dangers that modernity—specifically, utilitarianism and mechanization—posed to liberty, as well as their hope that education could moderate that danger.


Conference Readings

Carlyle, Thomas. The Works of Thomas Carlyle. London: Chapman and Hall, 1896-1899.

Dickens, Charles. Hard Times. Edited by Paul Schlicke. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Mill, John Stuart. The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume I - Autobiography and Literary Essays [1824]. Edited by John M. Robson. Toronto: Toronto University Press, 1981. (accessed October, 2009).

Mill, John Stuart. On Liberty. Edited by Mark Philp and Frederick Rosen. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Stephen, James Fitzjames. Liberty, Equality, Fraternity. Edited by Stuart D. Warner. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, Inc., 1993.

Stephen, Leslie. “Social Macadamisation.” Fraser’s Magazine (1872): 150-168.

Wilde, Oscar. The Artist as Critic: Critical Writings of Oscar Wilde. Edited by Richard Ellmann. London: W. H. Allen, 1970.