Less than thirty years after the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of the Soviet empire in 1990, socialism is at the center of political discussions in many European countries as well as the United States. Conferees discussed the historical roots, development, and ideas at the basis of socialist thinking, as well as various critiques from thinkers such as Mises, Hayek, and Friedman.


From Liberty Fund

Socialism and War

by By F. A. Hayek
Edited by Bruce Caldwell

In the essays in this volume Hayek contributed to economic knowledge in the context of socialism and war, while providing an intellectual defense of a free society. The connection between the two topics is illuminated through essays containing some of Hayek’s contributions to the socialist-calculation debate, writings pertaining to war,…

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by By Ludwig von Mises
Translated by J. Kahane
Foreword by F. A. Hayek

More than thirty years ago F. A. Hayek said of Socialism: “It was a work on political economy in the tradition of the great moral philosophers, a Montesquieu or Adam Smith, containing both acute knowledge and profound wisdom. . . . To none of us young men who read the…

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Additional Readings

Tucker, Robert C., eds. The Marx-Engels Reader. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1978.

Orwell, George. "Looking Back on the Spanish War."

Cohen, G. A. Why Not Socialism? Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009.

de Jasay, Anthony. Market Socialism: A Scrutiny ‘This Square Circle’. Westminster: The Institute of Economic Affairs, 1990.

Friedman, Milton. Capitalism and Freedom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.

Harrington, Michael. Socialism: Past and Future. New York: Arcade Publishing, 2011.

Hayek, F. A. Law, Legislation and Liberty, Volume 2: The Mirage of Social Justice [Phoenix series]. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1976.

Hayek, F. A. “The Use of Knowledge in Society.” The American Economic Review 35, no. 4 (September 1945): 519-530.

Otteson, James. The End of Socialism. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014.

Schumpeter, Joseph A. Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy. New York: Harper Perennial, 1950.

Shaw, George Bernard, “Socialism: Principles and Outlook” In The Encyclopaedia Britannica, 13th Edition, London: The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company, Ltd., 1926. Page(s): 572-575.

Sunkara, Bhaskar. The Socialist Manifesto: The Case for Radical Politics in an Era of Extreme Inequality. New York: Basic Books, 2019.