Freedom and the American Reconstruction Era


This conference sought to better understand the ideas and social context that shaped the era known as Reconstruction in the former states of the Confederacy. We attempted this task by presenting mostly primary texts to give conferees the opportunity to examine for themselves the principal ideas and leaders of the time, both black and white.


Conference Readings

Frohnen, Bruce P., eds. The American Nation: Primary Sources, Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, Inc., 2009.

Ashbrook Center. Reconstruction: Core Documents. Compiled by Scott Yenor. Ashland: Ashbrook Press, 2018.

“The Wade-Davis Manifesto August 5 1864.” University of Groningen. http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/documents/1851-1875 (January 21, 2021).

“Civil Rights Bill, April 9, 1866.” Library of Congress. https://www.loc.gov/law/help/statutes-at-large/39th-congress/session-1/c39s1ch31.pdf (January 21, 2021).

“The Lesson from Jamaica, December 1865.” The Pennsylvania Freedman’s Bulletin. https://books.google.com (January 21, 2021).

Hyman, Harold M., eds. The Radical Republicans and Reconstruction, 1861–1870. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc., 1967.

Richardson, James D., eds. A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents, 1789-1902, Volume VI. New York: Bureau of National Literature and Art, 1903.

“First Reconstruction Act, March 2, 1867.” HistoryCentral.com. https://www.historycentral.com/documents/FirstReconstructionAct.html (January 21, 2021).

“The Republican Party in the South, The Nation, July 17, 1867.” Google Books. https://books.google.com (January 21, 2021).

Garraty, John A., eds. Quarrels That Have Shaped the Constitution. New York: Harper Perennial, 1975, 2009.

Ware, Susan, eds. American Women’s Suffrage. New York: The Library of America, 2020.

Abbott, Lyman. “Results of Emancipation in the United States of America, August 1867.” Google Books. www.google.com/books (January 21, 2021).

Douglass, Frederick. “What the Black Man Wants, April 1865.” University of Virginia. http://utc.iath.virginia.edu/africam/afspfdat.html (January 21, 2021).

Douglass, Frederick. “Our Work is Not Done, December 4, 1863.” Rochester.edu. https://rbscp.lib.rochester.edu/4403 (January 21, 2021).

Johnson, Andrew. “Veto Message on Civil Rights Legislation, March 27, 1866.” Miller Center.org. https://millercenter.org/the-presidency/presidential-speeches/march-27-1866-veto-message-civil-rights-legislation (January 21, 2021).

Johnson, Andrew. “Veto Message on Freedmen and Refugee Relief Bureau Legislation, February 19, 1866.” MillerCenter.org. https://millercenter.org/the-presidency/presidential-speeches/february-19-1866-veto-message-freedmen-and-refugee-relief (January 21, 2021).

Johnson, Andrew. “Third Annual Message to Congress, December 3, 1867.” MillerCenter.org. https://millercenter.org (January 21, 2021).

Julian, George W. Political Recollections, 1840 to 1872. Chicago: Jansen, McClurg & Company, 1884. https://books.google.com (accessed January 21, 2021).

Kennedy, John F. Profiles in Courage. New York: HarperCollins, 1956, 2003.

Owen, Robert Dale, J. McKaye, and Saml. G. Howe, Commissioners. “American Freedman’s Inquiry Commission.” www.civilwarhome.com. https://www.civilwarhome.com/commissionreportchapt3.html (January 21, 2021).

Rawlins, John A. “General Grant’s Views in Harmony with Congress, Galena, Illinois, June 21, 1867.” HathiTrust.org. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=loc.ark:/13960/t75t3rg40&view=1up&seq=11 (January 21, 2021).

Schurz, Carl. Speeches, Correspondence and Political Papers of Carl Schurz, Volume I. Edited by Frederic Bancroft. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1913.

Sumner, Charles. “Reconstruction Again: The Ballot and Public Schools Open to All: Speeches in the Senate, on the Supplementary Reconstruction Bill, March 15 and 16, 1867.” Gutenberg Project. https://www.gutenberg.org/files/50160/50160-h/50160-h.htm#RECONSTRUCTION_AGAIN (January 21, 2021).

Sumner, Charles. “Creation of the Freedman’s Bureau: A Bridge from Slavery to Freedom.” Gutenberg Project. https://www.gutenberg.org/files/48376/48376-h/48376-h.htm#NO_PROPERTY_IN_MAN (January 21, 2021).

Washington, Booker T. “The Reconstruction Period.” University of South Florida. https://etc.usf.edu/lit2go/92/ (January 21, 2021).