Natural Rights on the Threshold of the Scottish Enlightenment
The Writings of Gershom Carmichael

By Gershom Carmichael
Edited by James Moore and Michael Silverthorne, with a Foreword by James Moore
Translated by Michael Silverthorne


Gershom Carmichael (1672–1729) was the first professor of moral philosophy at the University of Glasgow, preceding Hutcheson, Smith, and Reid. His philosophy focused on the natural rights of individuals—the natural right to defend oneself, to own the property on which one has labored, and to services contracted for with others. Although he appealed to the authority of Grotius and Locke, the grounds on which he defended natural rights were distinctively his own. Natural Rights is the first modern edition and translation of his published works.

James Moore is Emeritus Professor of Political Science at Concordia University in Montreal.

Michael Silverthorne is Honorary University Fellow in the School of Classics at the University of Exeter.


Jan 2002 | 6 x 9 | 430 Pages

Foreword, editorial note, annotations, bibliography of works cited, index.


978-0-86597-319-0 Hardcover
978-0-86597-320-6 Paperback